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Neurofeedback Research on ADD and ADHD

Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 39–43.

Arns, M., Drinkenburg, W., & Leon Kenemans, J. (2012). The effects of QEEG-informed neurofeedback in ADHD: An open-label pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 37(3), 171-80.

Arns, M., Feddema, I., & Kenemans, J. L. (2014). Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1019. 10.3389/fnhum.2014.01019

Arns, M., Conners, C. K., Kraemer, H.C. (2013). A decade of EEG theta/beta ratio research in ADHD: a meta-analysis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 374-383. doi: 10.1177/1087054712460087

Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A metaanalysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3) 180–189.

Arns, M., & Kenemans, J. L. (2014). Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia: Vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 44, 183-194. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.10.006

Bakhshayesh, A. R., Hänsch, S., Wyschkon, A., Rezai, M. J., & Esser, G. (2011). Neurofeedback in ADHD: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(9), 481-91.

Bink, M., Nieuwenhuizen, C., Popma, A., Bongers, I., Boxtel, G. (2015). Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(9), 1035-1048. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0655-3

Breteler, M. H. M., Arns, M., Peters, S., Giepmans, I., & Verhoeven, L. (2010). Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 5–11.

Cowley, B., Holmström, É., Juurmaa, K., Kovarskis, L., & Krause, C. M. (2016). Computer enabled neuroplasticity treatment: A clinical trial of a novel design for neurofeedback therapy in adult ADHD. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 205. 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00205

Drechsler R, Straub M, Doehnert M, Heinrich H, Steinhausen H, Brandeis D. (2007). Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with ADHD. Behavioral & Brain Functions, 3, 35.

Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., Ricardo-Garcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 34(3), 145–150.

Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365–274.

Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 112.

Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., Studer, P., . . . Heinrich, H. (2010). Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(9), 715-24. doi:

Gevensleben, H., Kleemeyer, M., Rothenberger, L. G., Studer, P., Flaig-röhr, A., Moll, G. H., . . . Heinrich, H. (2014). Neurofeedback in ADHD: Further pieces of the puzzle. Brain Topography, 27(1), 20-32.

González-castro, P., Cueli, M., Rodríguez, C., García, T., & Álvarez, L. (2016). Efficacy of neurofeedback versus pharmacological support in subjects with ADHD. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 41(1), 17-25.

Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, N., & Strehl, U. (2007). Neurofeedback for Children with ADHD: A Comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta Protocols. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32(2), 73-88. doi:10.1007/s10484-007-9031-0

Lofthouse, N., Arnold, L. E., Hersch, S., Hurt, E., & DeBeus, R. (2012). A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(5), 351-372. 10.1177/1087054711427530

Lubar, J. F. (1997). Neocortical dynamics: Implications for understanding the role of neurofeedback and related techniques for the enhancement of attention. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 22(2), 111-26.

Moreno-García, I., Delgado-Pardo, G., de Rey, C. C., Meneres-Sancho, S., & Servera-Barceló, M. (2015). Neurofeedback, pharmacological treatment and behavioral therapy in hyperactivity: Multilevel analysis of treatment effects on electroencephalography. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15(3), 217-225.

Moriyama, T. S., Polanczyk, G., Caye, A., Banaschewski, T., Brandeis, D., & Rohde, L. A. (2012). Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD. Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 588-98.

Rossiter, T. (2004). The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part II. replication. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29(4), 233-43.

Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (1998). Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: Effectiveness in students with ADD. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 23(4), 243-63.

Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (2005). Neurofeedback intervention for adults with ADHD. Journal of Adult Development, 12(2), 123-130. 10.1007/s10804-005-7028-6

Van Doren, J., Arns, M., Heinrich, H., Volebregt, M. A., Strehl, U. & Loo, S. K. (2018) Sustained effects of neurofeedback in ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,


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